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what is a plantation house

[17] Some plantations also had pigeonniers (dovecotes) that, in Louisiana, sometimes took the form of monumental towers set near the main house. [17], The cookhouse or kitchen was almost always in a separate building in the South until modern times, sometimes connected to the main house by a covered walkway. These include tobacco, sugarcane, pineapple, and cotton, especially in historical usage. They included a cookhouse (separate kitchen building), pantry, washhouse (laundry), smokehouse, chicken house, spring house or ice house, milkhouse (dairy), covered well, and cistern. Many plantations utilized a number of specialized structures that were crop-specific and only found on that type of plantation. [1][41], A cotton plantation normally had a cotton gin house, where the cotton gin was used to remove the seeds from raw cotton. The first agricultural plantations in Virginia were founded on the growing of tobacco. The plantation was also a place where Mr. Brown’s daughter, M. T. Could recuperate from polio. It was steam-heated in vats where additional impurities were removed by adding lime to the syrup and then the mixture was strained. [4], The vast majority of plantations did not have grand mansions centered on a huge acreage. The main page of their web site at www.evergreenplantation.org indicates that tours are by appointment only, but another page shows daily tour times. Monterey Pine and Bishop Pine as plantation trees in southern Britain. Plantation House is open 7 days a week. Many forestry experts claim that the establishment of plantations will reduce or eliminate the need to exploit natural forest for wood production. Plantations are an important aspect of the History of the Southern United States, particularly the antebellum era (pre-American Civil War). Less common are intact examples of slave housing. It was the remaining liquid after the butter was removed from the churn. [4], Many plantations were operated by absentee-landowners and never had a main house on site. View All Promotions. Owners no longer want or need to live on the plantation. [8][17] The pantry could be in its own structure or in a cool part of the cookhouse or a storehouse and would have secured items such as barrels of salt, sugar, flour, cornmeal and the like. This seems to be especially true with planters within the Episcopal denomination. In some cases, their establishment may involve draining wetlands to replace mixed hardwoods that formerly predominated with pine species. Selected individuals grown in seed orchards are a good source for seeds to develop adequate planting material. Individual blocks are usually even-aged and often consist of just one or two species. Decent gas prices. These buildings might include schoolhouses, offices, churches, commissary stores, gristmills, and sawmills. After the canopy closes, with the tree crowns touching each other, the plantation is becoming dense and crowded, and tree growth is slowing due to competition. The mild temperate climate, plentiful rainfall, and fertile soils of the southeastern United States allowed the flourishing of large plantations, where large numbers of enslaved Africans were held captive as slave labor and forced to produce crops to create wealth for a white elite. From there the juice went through a process that removed impurities from the liquid and thickened it through evaporation. These types of plantations are sometimes called fast-wood plantations or fiber farms and often managed on a short-rotation basis, as little as 5 to 15 years. "Honestly, 'plantation' and 'slavery' is one and the same," said an employee of the Whitney Plantation in 2019. In the era of chain stores and chain restaurants they feel good and authentic. Traditionally the museum houses presented an idyllic, dignified "lost cause" vision of the antebellum South. A plantation is a large-scale estate, generally centered on a plantation house, meant for farming that specializes in cash crops.The crops that are grown include cotton, coffee, tea, cocoa, sugar cane, opium, sisal, oil seeds, oil palms, fruits, rubber trees and forest trees. See more. In many cases the planter built a church or chapel for the use of the plantation slaves, although they usually recruited a white minister to conduct the services. Many manor houses survive, and in some cases former slave dwellings have been rebuilt or renovated. Everard, J. E. & Fourt, D. F. (1974). Following the slaughter in the fall or early winter, salt and sugar were applied to the meat at the beginning of the curing process, and then the meat was slowly dried and smoked in the smokehouse by a fire that did not add any heat to the smokehouse itself. "[56] "'I was depressed by the time I left and questioned why anyone would want to live in South Carolina,' read one review [of a tour] posted to Twitter."[57]. Recently, and to different degrees, some have begun to acknowledge the "horrors of slavery" which made that life possible. The following three plantations are maintained by the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador as provincial heritage sites: African slave labour was used extensively to work on early plantations (such as tobacco, rice, cotton, and sugar plantations) in the American colonies and the United States, throughout the Caribbean, the Americas, and in European-occupied areas of Africa. During this time the cream would sour slightly through naturally occurring bacteria. Vernon but some 375 former plantation houses are museums that can be visited. Christmas trees are often grown on as well. Once firm enough to separate out, but soft enough to stick together, the butter was taken out of the churn, washed in very cold water, and salted. Plantations established purely for the production of fiber provide a much narrower range of services than the original natural forest for the local people. However, afterward the tenant farmer had to pay for the coming year's staples, thereby keeping himself permanently indebted to the plantation owner. In the case of exotic species, the habitat can be improved significantly if the impact is mitigated by measures such as leaving blocks of native species in the plantation, or retaining corridors of natural forest. Plantation House Hotel. [49] In his study of southwest Georgia, Lee Formwalt defines planters in terms of size of land holdings rather than in terms of numbers of slaves. Cotton production was a very labor-intensive crop to harvest, with the fibers having to be hand-picked from the bolls. But due to rising input costs of farming many farmers have done teak and bamboo plantations which require very little water (only during first two years). A few were common, such as the carriage house and blacksmith shop; but most varied widely among plantations and were largely a function of what the planter wanted, needed, or could afford to add to the complex. Using forest plantations to spare natural forests. 40 plantation home designs and photos including antebellum mansions, southern, Greek Revival mansions, Charleston mansions and contemporary Southern home plans. Early records indicate that at Faunsdale Plantation the mistress of the estate, Louisa Harrison, gave regular instruction to her slaves by reading the services of the church and teaching the Episcopal catechism to their children. Probably the single most important factor a plantation has on the local environment is the site where the plantation is established. Antebellum means "before war" in Latin. [34] In the upper South, like their counterparts in the North, barns had to provide basic shelter for the animals and storage of fodder. In village-type slave quarters on plantations with overseers, his house was usually at the head of the slave village rather than near the main house, at least partially due to his social position. While the large white, symmetrical mansion with columns is the stereotypical “plantation home design” not all southern mansions are built in this style. [8] Although it, like the schoolroom, was most often within the main house or another structure, it was not at all rare for a complex to have a separate plantation office. [28], Most plantation churches were of wood-frame construction, although some were built in brick, often stuccoed. While most Southerners were not slave-owners, and while the majority of slaveholders held ten or fewer slaves, planters were those who held a significant number of slaves, mostly as agricultural labor. Cleaning laundry in this period was labor-intensive for the domestic slaves that performed it. Protectionist policies and natural comparative advantage have sometimes contributed to determining where plantations are located. [52], Many nostalgic memoirs about plantation life were published in the post-bellum South. the mansion of Shirley Plantation. Sometimes dormitories and two-story dwellings were also used as slave housing. Conversely, an afflicted plantation can in some cases be cleared of pest species cheaply through the use of a prescribed burn, which kills all lesser plants but does not significantly harm the mature trees. Plantation landscapes were very well maintained and trimmed, usually, the landscape work was managed by the planter, with assistance from slaves or workers. Between 1934 - 1951, the Browns planted pecan, persimmon, cedar, palmetto, magnolia, and azaleas around the house. In fact, Louisiana produced almost all of the sugar grown in the United States during the antebellum period. A plantation complex in the Southern United States is the built environment (or complex) that was common on agricultural plantations in the American South from the 17th into the 20th century. A plantation is a large-scale estate, generally centered on a plantation house, meant for farming that specializes in cash crops. Rarely though, such as at the former Hermitage Plantation in Georgia and Boone Hall in South Carolina, even field slaves were provided with brick cabins. Fruit orchards are sometimes considered to be plantations. Once a plantation is established, how it is managed becomes the important environmental factor. All estates would have possessed various types of animal pens, stables, and a variety of barns. Such colonial social and economic structures are discussed at Plantation economy. Private Dining. COST: ($8 per person with paid garden admission, children under 6 free). [26], Another structure found on some estates was a plantation chapel or church. Two of the most elaborate extant examples in the Deep South are the Chapel of the Cross at Annandale Plantation and St. Mary's Chapel at Laurel Hill Plantation, both Episcopalian structures in Mississippi. Using styles and building concepts they had learned in the Caribbean, the French created many of the grand plantation homes around New Orleans. Crib barns were typically built of unchinked logs, although they were sometimes covered with vertical wood siding. Meant for little more than sleeping, they were usually rough log or frame one-room cabins; early examples often had chimneys made of clay and sticks. Plantations: The Dark History Behind the South's Most Famous Architectural Style Behind the beautiful homes and gardens is a dark history By Stefanie Waldek Plantation House has been fashioned with values that work across contours of … Today, as was also true in the past, there is a wide range of opinion as to what differentiated a plantation from a farm. View details. In the Kyoto Protocol, there are proposals encouraging the use of plantations to reduce carbon dioxide levels (though this idea is being challenged by some groups on the grounds that the sequestered CO2 is eventually released after harvest). [18], The washhouse is where clothes, tablecloths, and bed-covers were cleaned and ironed. … Just as vital and arguably more important to the complex were the many structures built for the processing and storage of crops, food preparation and storage, sheltering equipment and animals, and various other domestic and agricultural purposes. As is true of buildings in general, the more substantially built and architecturally interesting buildings have tended to be the ones that survived into the modern age and are better documented than many of the smaller and simpler ones. Teak requires 20 years to grow to full maturity and fetch returns. Then the slaves had to weed the fields all summer and remove the flowers from the tobacco plants in order to force more energy into the leaves. [10], Slave houses were often one of the most basic construction. Virts, Nancy, "Change in the Plantation System: American South, 1910–1945,", This page was last edited on 22 November 2020, at 19:43. Plantation House Two (PH 2) is a renovated traditional style farmhouse set in 2 acres of land and is literally across the road from the original Plantation House. Plantations are grown by state forestry authorities (for example, the Forestry Commission in Britain) and/or the paper and wood industries and other private landowners (such as Weyerhaeuser, Rayonier and Sierra Pacific Industries in the United States, Asia Pulp & Paper in Indonesia). [7] Bricks were most often produced onsite from sand and clay that was molded, dried, and then fired in a kiln. That is to say, it is passing the point of maximum wood growth per hectare per year, and so is ready for the final harvest. Where non-native varieties or species are grown, few of the native fauna are adapted to exploit these and further biodiversity loss occurs. Another word for plantation. (In towns and cities, families held slaves to work as household servants.) Some plantation trees, such as pines and eucalyptus, can be at high risk of fire damage because their leaf oils and resins are flammable to the point of a tree being explosive under some conditions[citation needed]. The vast majority of plantations did not have grand mansions centered on a huge acreage. The ground is cleared, and the cycle can be restarted. From its unique vantage point on Kapalua's Plantation Golf Course, the elegant dining room offers panoramic ocean views and breathtaking sunsets. [30][31], Another secondary structure on many plantations during the height of the sharecropping-era was the plantation store or commissary. These may be established for watershed or soil protection. Among the earliest examples of plantations were the latifundia of the Roman Empire, which produced large quantities of grain, wine and olive oil for export. The privies would have been located some distance away from the plantation house and kitchen yard. Plantation Silviculture in Europe. Famous landscape designer Frederick Law Olmsted had this recollection of a visit to plantations along the Georgia coast in 1855: In the afternoon, I left the main road, and, towards night, reached a much more cultivated district. They sat on vast acreage with crops stretching to the horizon. In 2000, while plantations accounted for 5% of global forest, it is estimated that they supplied about 35% of the world's roundwood.[1]. Noah pretty much single-handedly renovates the place and transforms it into this beaut (below): Allie (Rachel McAdams) told him, “I want a white house with blue shutters. The Whitney Plantation is a complex of buildings which includes at least twelve historic structures. They are becoming more widespread in South America, Asia and other areas. The final step was packing the sugar into hogshead barrels for transport to market. The great majority of Southern farmers owned no slaves or owned fewer than five slaves. This also offers both small dormitory and private accommodation with and without ensuite bathrooms. Following the death of her first husband, she had a large Carpenter Gothic church built, St. Michael's Church. [14], Another residential structure largely unique to plantation complexes was the garconnière or bachelors' quarters. Most of these represent the dwellings constructed for field slaves. All remaining trees are felled, delimbed, and taken to be processed. Plantations harvested on longer rotation periods (30 years or more) can provide similar benefits to a naturally regenerated forest managed for wood production, on a similar rotation. Bamboo, once planted, gives output for 50 years till flowering occurs. [27] Some were built to exclusively serve the plantation family, but many more were built to serve the family and others in the area who shared the same faith. In contrast to a naturally regenerated forest, plantations are typically grown as even-aged monocultures, primarily for timber production. These could be huge aboveground wooden barrels capped by metal domes, such as was often seen in Louisiana and coastal areas of Mississippi, or underground brick masonry domes or vaults, common in other areas. These farmers tended to work the fields alongside the people they enslaved. During the financial panics of 1819 and 1837, when demand by British mills for cotton dropped, many small planters went bankrupt and their land and slaves were bought by larger plantations. Popular dishes. Although the main houses at Nottoway and Houmas House are more beautiful, Evergreen is a complete plantation complex, including the original (although somewhat restored) slave cabins. In southern and southeastern Asia, teak plantations have recently replaced the natural forest. Browse 1,209 plantation house stock photos and images available, or search for southern plantation house to find more great stock photos and pictures. They were used to thresh the grain from the inedible chaff. The forest of pines extended uninterruptedly on one side of the way, but on the other was a continued succession of very large fields, or rich dark soil – evidently reclaimed swamp-land – which had been cultivated the previous year, in Sea Island cotton, or maize. These were usually roofed and often partially enclosed by latticework to keep out animals. The later development of cotton and sugar cultivation in the Deep South in the early 18th century led to the establishment of large plantations which had hundreds of slaves. Centers of plantation life such as Natchez run plantation tours. The overseer was responsible for healthcare, with slaves and slave houses inspected routinely. However, even non-native tree species may serve as corridors for wildlife and act as a buffer for native forest, reducing edge effect. [33] Stables were an essential type of barn on the plantation, used to house both horses and mules. “Plantations are the sites of violence and brutality; an enslaved labor camp with a pretty house on it.” Ignorance of that fact will be much harder to justify in the future. The rarest survivors of all are the agricultural and lesser domestic structures, especially those dating from the pre-Civil War era. Typically, the focus of a farm was subsistence agriculture. While large farms still exist, they are largely mechanized, and the need for a laboring community of slaves or sharecroppers has disappeared. Most plantations possessed some, if not all, of these outbuildings, often called dependencies, commonly arranged around a courtyard to the rear of the main house known as the kitchen yard. It has been estimated that the world's demand for fiber could be met by just 5% of the world forest (Sedjo & Botkin 1997). [50] In his study of Harrison County, Texas, Randolph B. Campbell classifies large planters as owners of 20 slaves, and small planters as owners of between 10 and 19 slaves. Plantation agriculture grew rapidly with the increase in international trade and the development of a worldwide economy that followed the expansion of European colonialism. The Martins Point Plantation House in “The Notebook” You could say the house was a “fixer upper” when we first see it in the movie (above). Teak and bamboo have legal protection from theft. Since the well water in many areas was distasteful due to mineral content, the potable water on many plantations came from cisterns that were supplied with rainwater by a pipe from a rooftop catchment. The process of turning a person into a house servant or field hand was called "seasoning." Forest genetic resources are the basis for genetic alteration. Paper was precious, so the children often recited their lessons until they memorized them. This model, however, was exceedingly rare.[8]. Still other arrangements had the kitchen in one room, a laundry in the other, and a second story for servant quarters. They usually resided either in a part of the main house or in their own houses, which were normally more comfortable dwellings than those of their counterparts who worked in the fields. This type of construction, called briquettes entre poteaux or "brick between posts," was used on the front and rear walls, with a type of adobe filling on the side walls. Slave quarters could be next to the main house, well away from it, or both. Around year 10-60 the plantation is now mature and (in economic terms) is falling off the back side of its growth curve. However, in practice, plantations are replacing natural forest, for example in Indonesia. Sedjo, R. A. (1974). Industrial plantations are usually large-scale. After his death in 1792, his daughter Celeste and her husband Jean Noel purchased the home. Tobacco production on plantations was very labor-intensive. coffee, tea, cocoa, sugar cane, opium, sisal, oil seeds, oil palms, fruits, rubber trees and forest trees. Management may be less intensive than with Industrial plantations. Antebellum homes refer to the large, elegant mansions — usually plantation homes — built in the American South during the 30 years or so before the American Civil War (1861-1865). These were built for a variety of reasons. Kale Caesar Salad. Media related to Plantations at Wikimedia Commons, Last edited on 22 November 2020, at 19:43, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Plantation house § Antebellum American South, "An overview of industrial tree plantation conflicts in the global South. How to use plantation in a sentence. Southern live oaks, classically draped in Spanish moss, were planted along long paths or walkways leading to the plantation to create a grand, imposing, and majestic theme. Sugarcane is still an important crop in Cuba. When Newfoundland was colonized by England in 1610, the original colonists were called "Planters" and their fishing rooms were known as "fishing plantations". This means that the forests produced by plantations do not contain the type of growth, soil or wildlife typical of, Sea-Forest Plantation was a 17th-century fishing plantation established at Cuper's Cove (present-day, Pool Plantation a 17th-century fishing plantation maintained by. Houmas House Plantation and Gardens: Darrow, LA. In contrast, the primary focus of a plantation was the production of cash crops, with enough staple food crops produced to feed the population of the estate and the livestock. Others work unreasonably long hours and are paid subsistence wages that (in practice) may only be spent in the company store. I have taken a tour of a plantation house and it is very nice. These same people produced the built environment: the main house for the plantation owner, the slave cabins, barns, and other structures of the complex. The overseer was largely responsible for the success or failure of an estate, making sure that quotas were met and sometimes meting out punishment for infractions by the enslaved. {Note that there is also a Laurel Hill Plantation in Jefferson County that was owned by the Rush Nutt family}", "Georgetown County Rice Culture, c. 1750-c. 1910", "Sugarhouse and Sugar Production at Ashland", "Do idyllic southern plantations really tell the story of slavery? Find blueprints for your dream home. [9] Only the better-built examples tended to survive, and then usually only if they were turned to other uses after emancipation. Both Plantation Houses have gas … Mostly built by Louisiana Creole people, but occasionally found in other parts of the Deep South formerly under the dominion of New France, they were structures that housed the adolescent or unmarried sons of plantation owners. If for eggs, there were often nest boxes for egg laying and perches on which the birds to sleep. The mid-19th century plantation home, Longwood, is located at 140 Lower Woodville Road, Natchez, Mississippi, and is the largest standing octagonal house in the United States. Every plantation had at least one, and sometimes several, wells. [25], Most plantation owners maintained an office for keeping records, transacting business, writing correspondence, and the like. History of plantations in the American South, Plantation agriculture in the Southeastern United States, Plantation house § Plantation house in the Southern United States, "The Evolution of the Slave Quarter in Tidewater Virginia", "Overseer's House at the Rural Life Museum", "Mechanics and Functions of a Smokehouse", "St. Mary Chapel, located on Laurel Hill Plantation in Adams County, approximately eight (8) miles south of Natchez. The Plantation House offers a perfect blend of casual elegance and Hawaiian hospitality and is open for breakfast, lunch and dinner daily. This type of debt bondage, for blacks and poor whites, led to a populist movement in the late 19th century that began to bring blacks and whites together for a common cause. Robin deLogny only lived two years after the completion of the plantation. "[56], McLeod Plantation, focuses primarily on slavery. Farm or home plantations are typically established for the production of timber and fire wood for home use and sometimes for sale. [17], The chicken house was a building where chickens were kept. The Plantation House hosts winemakers for special events throughout the year and is host restaurant to the PGA TOUR Sentry Tournament of Championships each January. [53] Such memoirs often included descriptions of Christmas as the epitome of anti-modern order exemplified by the "great house" and extended family.[54]. Explore {{searchView.params.phrase}} by color family {{familyColorButtonText(colorFamily.name)}} Cash crops were not grown in these small garden plots, but rather garden plants and vegetables for enjoyment. [8] On most plantations, however, a room in the main house was sufficient for schooling, rather than a separate dedicated building. The churning process also produced buttermilk as a by-product. Conflicts, trends, and resistance struggles", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plantation&oldid=990092999, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, In the first year, the ground is prepared usually by the combination of burning, herbicide spraying, and/or. By the late 18th century, most planters in the Upper South had switched from exclusive tobacco cultivation to mixed-crop production. Benger Plantation, an 18th-century fishing plantation maintained by James Benger and his heirs at Ferryland. What does PLANTATION mean? Eggs were collected daily. TIMES: Tours begin at the top of every hour beginning at 9:00 AM and ending at 5:00 PM. [45] The wealthiest planters, such as the Virginia elite with plantations near the James River, owned more land and slaves than other farmers. Southern plantations were generally self-sufficient settlements that relied on the forced labor of enslaved people, similar to the way that a medieval manorial estate relied upon the forced labor of serfs.[1]. There are examples in every Southern state. It was then placed into a closed vessel known as a vacuum pan, where it was boiled until the sugar in the syrup was crystallized. Short documentary", Plantation complexes in the Southern United States, Slave health on plantations in the United States, Treatment of the enslaved in the United States, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plantation_complexes_in_the_Southern_United_States&oldid=991991523, History of agriculture in the United States, Slave cabins and quarters in the United States, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, * Evans, Chris, "The Plantation Hoe: The Rise and Fall of an Atlantic Commodity, 1650–1850,". ", "Pinterest and The Knot Pledge to Stop Promoting Plantation Weddings", "As plantations talk more honestly about slavery, some visitors are pushing back", "Some white people don't want to hear about slavery at plantations built by slaves", "The Plantation System in Southern Life. [6][8], Slave housing, although once one of the most common and distinctive features of the plantation landscape, has largely disappeared from most of the South. It was also part of an effort to keep the enslaved people compliant and prevent the beginnings of a slave rebellion, a very real fear in the minds of most plantation owners. These were usually separate, one for each type of animal.

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